Dublin Core/danMARC2/GILS Crosswalk

Susanne Thorborg
Danish Library Center
st@dbc.dk

Last updated: 1997-08-28 (Draft - for test purpose only)


Introduction

This document is a draft version of the danMARC2 to DublinCore Crosswalk. It relies heavily on the Dublin Core/MARC/GILS crosswalk document developed by the Library of Congress (see http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/dccross.html) and on the Dublin Core/FINMARC/GILS crosswalk document developed by Juha Hakala (see http://www.lib.helsinki.fi/meta/dcficross.html).

The following is a crosswalk between the fifteen elements in the Dublin Core Element Set on the one hand and both danMARC2 bibliographic data elements and GILS attributes on the other. The crosswalk may be used in conversion of metadata from some other syntax into MARC. For conversion of MARC into Dublin Core, many fields would be mapped into a single Dublin Core element; this is not entirely covered in this document.

In the Dublin Core to danMARC2 mapping, in some cases there are two mappings provided. The first is a simple mapping and is used if the Dublin Core elements are used without qualifiers. The second is for a more complex description for which the elements have qualifiers. There could be a mixture, but if the particular element is unqualified, then the simple mapping for that element should be used. Certain defaults have been assumed as to definitions and qualifiers; if this changes the list will need to be adjusted. This list has been made consistent with the GILS/MARC mapping where possible. Where applicable, subfields are given.

Earlier metadata workshops supported the notion of defining qualifiers and subelements for elements when more complex descriptions are needed, but the list of qualifiers is not entirely agreed upon. When the list of qualifiers becomes standardized it will be necessary to modify this document and add to it as appropriate. Only the most obvious qualifiers have been included now. The crosswalk will be modified after qualifiers have become more standardized.

danMARC2 fields are listed with field number, then in parentheses field name/subfield name (if both are the same, no subfield name is included). The value of the indicators is allways 00.
The label is a shortened form of the element name. GILS attribute names for each Dublin Core element are also given. Definitions are taken from Dublin Core Metadata Element Set: Reference Description (see http://purl.org/metadata/dublin_core_elements).

It is possible that conversion produces several instances of the same field. This is OK for e.g. 700 and 710, but only one 245 tag is allowed.

Dublin Core to danMARC2 and GILS Crosswalk

Title

The name given to the resource by the CREATOR or PUBLISHER.

danMARC2:

If the element is repeated in the DC record, all titles after the first: 245$a (Title proper - repeatable subfield)

GILS:

Author or Creator

The person(s) or organization(s) primarily responsible for the intellectual content of the resource. For example, authors in the case of written documents, artists, photographers, or illustrators in the case of visual resources. Qualifier possible: type.

danMARC2:

If no qualifiers are used, no danMARC2 conversion is possible

If the Author element is (falsely) repeated in the DC record, the data from repeats should go either to 700$a and $h, or 710$a (see contributor tag for details), depending on the type values.

GILS:

Subject and Keywords

The topic of the resource, or keywords or phrases that describe the subject or content of the resource. The intent of the specification of this element is to promote the use of controlled vocabularies and keywords. This element might well include scheme-qualified classification data (for example, Library of Congress Classification Numbers or Dewey Decimal numbers) or scheme-qualified controlled vocabularies (such as Medical Subject Headings or Art and Architecture Thesaurus descriptors) as well. Qualifier possible: scheme.

danMARC2:

GILS:

Description

A textual description of the content of the resource, including abstracts in the case of document-like objects or content descriptions in the case of visual resources. Future metadata collections might well include computational content description (spectral analysis of a visual resource, for example) that may not be embeddable in current network systems. In such a case this field might contain a link to such a description rather than the description itself.

danMARC2:

GILS:

Publisher

The entity responsible for making the resource available in its present form, such as a publisher, a university department, or a corporate entity. The intent of specifying this field is to identify the entity that provides access to the resource.

danMARC2:

GILS

Other Contributors

Person(s) or organization(s) in addition to those specified in the CREATOR element who have made significant intellectual contributions to the resource but whose contribution is secondary to the individuals or entities specifed in the CREATOR element (for example, editors, transcribers, illustrators, and convenors). Qualifier possible: type.

danMARC2:

If no qualifiers are used, no danMARC2 conversion is possible

GILS

Date

The date the resource was made available in its present form. The recommended best practice is an 8 digit number in the form YYYYMMDD as defined by ANSI X3.30-1985. In this scheme, the date element for the day this is written would be 19961203, or December 3, 1996. Many other schema are possible, but if used, they should be identified in an unambiguous manner. Qualifier possible: type

danMARC2:


GILS

Resource Type

The category of the resource, such as home page, novel, poem, working paper, technical report, essay, dictionary. It is expected that RESOURCE TYPE will be chosen from an enumerated list of types. A preliminary set of such types can be found at the following URL: http://www.roads.lut.ac.uk/Metadata/DC-ObjectTypes.html.

danMARC2:

GILS

Format

The data representation of the resource, such as text/html, ASCII, Postscript file, executable application, or JPEG image. The intent of specifying this element is to provide information necessary to allow people or machines to make decisions about the usability of the encoded data (what hardware and software might be required to display or execute it, for example). As with RESOURCE TYPE, FORMAT will be assigned from enumerated lists such as registered Internet Media Types (MIME types). In principal, formats can include physical media such as books, serials, or other non-electronic media.

danMARC2:

GILS:

Resource Identifier

String or number used to uniquely identify the resource. Examples for networked resources include URLs and URNs (when implemented). Other globally-unique identifiers,such as International Standard Book Numbers (ISBN) or other formal names would also be candidates for this element. Qualifier possible: scheme.

danMARC2:

GILS:

Source

The work, either print or electronic, from which this resource is derived, if applicable. For example, an html encoding of a Shakespearean sonnet might identify the paper version of the sonnet from which the electronic version was transcribed.

danMARC2:

GILS:

Language

Language of the intellectual content of the resource. Where practical, the content of this field should coincide with the Z39.53 three character codes for written languages. Qualifier possible: scheme.
danMARC2:

If repeated and scheme=Z39.53, Language may also be generated in 041$a (Language of the main work)

GILS:

A three-character language code standard is currently under development as: ISO 639-2 (not yet available electronically)

Relation

Relationship to other resources. The intent of specifying this element is to provide a means to express relationships among resources that have formal relationships to others, but exist as discrete resources themselves. For example, images in a document, chapters in a book, or items in a collection. A formal specification of RELATION is currently under development. Users and developers should understand that use of this element should be currently considered experimental. Possible qualifiers: scheme, type.

danMARC2:

GILS:


Coverage

The spatial locations and temporal durations characteristic of the resource. Formal specification of COVERAGE is currently under development. Users and developers should understand that use of this element should be currently considered experimental. Possible qualifier: type.

danMARC2:

GILS:

Rights Management

The content of this element is intended to be a link (a URL or other suitable URI as appropriate) to a copyright notice, a rights-management statement, or perhaps a server that would provide such information in a dynamic way. The intent of specifying this field is to allow providers a means to associate terms and conditions or copyright statements with a resource or collection of resources. No assumptions should be made by users if such a field is empty or not present. Qualifiers possible: URL, URN. Nota bene: not available in the Nordic Metadata template yet (will be added shortly).

danMARC2:

GILS:

Notes

In addition to the variable length fields listed in the mapping, a danMARC2 record will also include a number of coded fields/subfields.
These fields (001-009), which is correponding to Leader and field 008 in e.g. USMARC or FINMARC contains coded information. The value of the indicators in these fields is always 00.
For records originating as Dublin Core, the following fields/subfields should be generated:

004 Code for Record status or Record type

008 Coded information about bibliographic materials

009 Code for material designation

Uses for mapping Dublin Core to MARC

A mapping between the elements in the Dublin Core and danMARC2 fields is necessary so that conversions between various syntaxes can occur accurately. Once Dublin Core style metadata is widely provided, it might interact with MARC records in various ways such as the following:

Enhancement of simple resource description record. A cataloging agency may wish to extract the metadata provided in Dublin Core style (presumably in HTML or SGML) and convert the data elements to MARC fields, resulting in a skeletal record. That record might then be enhanced as needed to add additional information generally provided in the particular catalog.

Searching across syntaxes and databases. Libraries have large systems with valuable information in MARC bibliographic records (which may also be called metadata). Over the past few years with the expansion of electronic resource over the Internet, other syntaxes have also been considered for providing metadata. The Library of Congress has worked with a group of SGML experts to create a Document-Type Definition (DTD) for MARC, so that conversions can be made between SGML and MARC in a standardized way. It will be important for systems to be able to search metadata in different syntaxes and databases and have commonality in the definition and use of elements.