Alternative name of service
Part of a service package
Service description

KOKO is a collection of Finnish ontologies, which have been linked to each other by means of mirroring. KOKO’s framework is the General Finnish Upper Ontology (YSO) to which a group of ontologies in special fields have been linked. KOKO contains in all over 50,000 concepts. Other ontologies included in KOKO are:

  • natural resource and environment ontology AFO,
  • public administration ontology JUHO,
  • fiction ontology KAUNO,
  • linguistics ontology KTO,
  • literary studies ontology KITO,
  • cultural studies ontology KULO,
  • ontology for traffic LIIKO,
  • business ontology LIITO,
  • museum ontology MAO,
  • music ontology MUSO,
  • ontology for military science SOTO,
  • arts and crafts ontology TAO,
  • health and well-being ontology TERO,
  • the Finnish Work Environment Fund ontology TSR and
  • photography ontology VALO.

Finto service is responsible for the maintenance of YSO and updating it in the KOKO ontology as well as coordination of KOKO cooperation. An owner organisation has been appointed for each special field, which is responsible for the maintenance of the ontology in question. Under certain terms, it possible to include more special ontologies in KOKO, when needed.


Standards used

ISO 25964-1:2011 (Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies – Part 1: Thesauri for information retrieval)

ISO 25964-2:2013 (Information and documentation – Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies – Part 2: Interoperability with other vocabularies)



Contact information
Service address
Background information

Together with the collaborative group of ontology developers, the National Library of Finland has drawn up general development guidelines for ontologies based on YSO. The ontologies included in KOKO are based on YSO. 

Service users
  • Organisations
Steering responsibility


Organisation model
  • Networking
Index terms: